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We default to using a renderer process for each site instance i. For example, some websites may respond to this request by showing you ads that aren't based on other websites you've visited. Enables sharing assets for installed default apps. Marks a renderer as an Instant process. This works only with drm platform. The information sent in this request includes the ID of the synced browsing history entry to identify the URL where the phishing attempt happened, and the verdict received from Safe Browsing. This is generally only useful for tests that want to force disabling.

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Install our free and paid tools. We don't track or sell your data Our goal is to make products you love so much that you decide to pay! Proud to help protect over 50 million people. Basic Free Protection for your browser. Basic Pro Premium Have an account? Protection for your browser. Protection for your entire device or computer. Lebanese society was able for a long time to give a semblance of relative economic stability.

The existence of a large middle-income group, in addition to the political and social legitimacy of kinship ties and religious and communal attachments, reinforced the veneer that masked the growing socioeconomic dislocations. The interaction of these factors covered up the growing class polarization, especially around the industrial belt that encircled Beirut.

The eruption of civil conflict in , and the state of chaos that ensued, is attributable in part to the fact that the system of government was unresponsive to the acute social problems and grievances. Historically, Lebanon is heir to a long succession of Mediterranean cultures—Phoenician, Greek, and Arab.

Its cultural milieu continues to show clear manifestations of a rich and diverse heritage. As an Arab country, Lebanon shares more than a common language with neighbouring Arab states; it also has a similar cultural heritage and common interests. Family and kinship play a central role in Lebanese social relationships, in both the private and public spheres. Although family structure is traditionally largely patriarchal, women are active in education and politics.

Those celebrated by the Christian community include Easter and Christmas , the dates of which vary, as elsewhere, between the Catholic and Orthodox communities. At one time, international opera, ballet, symphony, and drama companies of nearly all nationalities competed to enrich the cultural life of Beirut.

Lebanon has produced a number of gifted young artists who have shown a refreshing readiness to experiment with new expressive forms. Some Lebanese are active in international opera, theatre companies, and television and movie productions, while others are intent on creating a wider audience for classical Arabic music and theatre. Other artists have remained cultural staples for many years: The cultural awakening encouraged the revival of national folk arts, particularly song, dabkah the national dance , and zajal folk poetry , and the refinement of traditional crafts.

In the 19th century, Lebanese linguists were in the vanguard of the Arabic literary awakening. In more recent times, writers of the calibre of Khalil Gibran , Georges Shehade, Michel Chiha, and Hanan al-Shaykh have been widely translated and have reached an international audience. While for a time cultural life in Lebanon was predominantly centred around universities and affiliated institutions, there has been an impressive proliferation of cultural activities under other auspices.

Beirut has several museums and a number of private libraries, learned societies, and research institutions. The National Museum houses a collection of artifacts from Phoenician, Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine eras, and the National Library of Lebanon, closed in because of the civil war, began undergoing restorations in the early 21st century.

Football soccer is among the most popular sports in Lebanon, although basketball is also favoured. Weight lifting has been popular with many Lebanese athletes since the midth century, and the country has traditionally sent weight lifters to international competitions with some regularity. Participation in outdoor activities has also gained momentum. Lebanon has several well-equipped ski resorts, and downhill skiing is popular among the wealthy, while windsurfing and kayaking are favoured pastimes among the younger generation.

The untamed peaks and breathtaking scenery of the Lebanon Mountains contribute to the popularity of hiking expeditions and mountain biking. Lebanon sent a delegation of officials to the Summer Olympics in Berlin , paving the way for the formation in of the Lebanese Olympic committee, which was acknowledged by the International Olympic Committee the following year.

Since then, Lebanon has participated regularly in both the Summer and Winter Games. Lebanon has also hosted various competitions, including the Pan-Arab Games in and the Asian Cup in Lebanon has long had a strong print media tradition. The relative independence of the print media contrasts sharply with the relatively high degree of regulation exercised by the government over audiovisual media.

Television and radio broadcasting stations especially those that air political news and commentary are more heavily influenced by the government. Village life followed the domestication of plants and animals the Neolithic Revolution, after about 10, bce , with Byblos modern Jubayl apparently taking the lead. At this site also appear the first traces in Lebanon of pottery and metallurgy first copper, then bronze, an alloy of tin and copper by the 4th millennium bce.

The Phoenicians, indistinguishable from the Canaanites of Palestine, probably arrived in the land that became Phoenicia a Greek term applied to the coast of Lebanon about bce. Herodotus and other Classical writers preserve a tradition that they came from the coast of the Erythraean Sea i. Except at Byblos, no excavations have produced any information concerning the 3rd millennium in Phoenicia before the advent of the Phoenicians.

At Byblos the first urban settlement is dated about — bce. Commercial and religious connections with Egypt , probably by sea, are attested from the Egyptian 4th dynasty c.

The earliest artistic representations of Phoenicians are found at Memphis , in a damaged relief of Pharaoh Sahure of the 5th dynasty midth to early 24th century bce. Byblos was destroyed by fire about bce , probably by the invading Amorites. The Amorites rebuilt on the site, and a period of close contact with Egypt was begun. Costly gifts were given by the pharaohs to those Phoenician and Syrian princes, such as the rulers of Ugarit and Katna , who were loyal to Egypt.

In the 18th century bce new invaders, the Hyksos , destroyed Amorite rule in Byblos and, passing on to Egypt, brought the Middle Kingdom to an end c. The rule of the Hyksos in Egypt was brief and their cultural achievement slight, but in this period the links with Phoenicia and Syria were strengthened by the presence of Hyksos aristocracies throughout the region.

In his annals, Ahmose records capturing oxen from the Fenkhw, a term here perhaps referring to the Phoenicians. Of particular importance to the New Kingdom pharaohs was the timber, notably cedar, of the Lebanese forests. A temple relief at Karnak depicts the chiefs of Lebanon felling cedars for the Egyptian officers of Seti I c. Fuller information about the state of Phoenicia in the 14th century bce comes from the Amarna letters , diplomatic texts belonging to the Egyptian foreign office, written in cuneiform and found at Tell el-Amarna in Middle Egypt.

These archives reveal that the land of Retenu Syria-Palestine was divided into three administrative districts, each under an Egyptian governor. Also among the letters are many documents addressed by the subject princes of Phoenicia and their Egyptian governors to the pharaoh. It was a time of much political unrest. The Hittites from central Anatolia were invading Syria; nomads from the desert supported the invasion, and many of the local chiefs were ready to seize the opportunity to throw off the yoke of Egypt.

The tablets that reveal this state of affairs are written in the language and script of Babylonia i. After the reign of Akhenaton Amenhotep IV; reigned —36 bce , that power collapsed altogether, but his successors attempted to recover it, and Ramses II —13 bce reconquered Phoenicia as far as the Al-Kalb River. The successors of Ramses III lost their hold over Canaan; the 21st dynasty no longer intervened in the affairs of Syria.

Sheshonk Shishak I, the founder of the 22nd dynasty, endeavoured about bce to assert the ancient supremacy of Egypt. His successes, however, were not lasting, and, as is clear from the Old Testament , the power of Egypt thereafter became ineffective. Kingship appears to have been the oldest form of Phoenician government. The royal houses claimed divine descent, and the king could not be chosen outside their members.

His power, however, was limited by that of the merchant families, who wielded great influence in public affairs. Associated with the king was a council of elders; such at least was the case at Byblos, Sidon, and perhaps Tyre. Much later, in the 3rd century bce , an inscription from Tyre also mentions a suffete. Carthage was governed by two suffetes, and these officers are frequently named in connection with the Carthaginian colonies. But this does not justify any inference that Phoenicia itself had such magistrates.

Under the Persians a federal bond was formed linking Sidon, Tyre, and Aradus. Federation on a larger scale was never possible in Phoenicia because no sense of political unity existed to bind the different states together. By the 2nd millennium bce the Phoenicians had already extended their influence along the coast of the Levant by a series of settlements, some well known, some virtually nothing but names. The site was already occupied before the 4th millennium bce , but the Phoenicians became prominent there only in the Egyptian 12th dynasty — bce.

Evidence remains of two temples dedicated to the Phoenician gods Baal and Dagon , although the ruling family appears to have been of different, non-Phoenician extraction. The 15th century bce shows strong cultural influences already established there from Cyprus and the world of Mycenaean Greece.

A splendid archive of literary and administrative documents found at Ugarit from this period provides evidence of an early form of alphabetic script, arguably the most important Phoenician contribution to Western civilization. In the latter part of the 13th century bce , a flood of land and sea raiders the Sea Peoples descended on the Levant coast, destroying many of the Phoenician cities and rolling onward to the frontier of Egypt, from which they were beaten back by the pharaoh Ramses III.

Ugarit was destroyed, together with Aradus and Byblos, though the latter were afterward rebuilt. Though Sidon was destroyed only in part, its inhabitants fled to Tyre , which from this time was regarded as the principal city of Phoenicia and began its period of prosperity and expansion.

It is likely that the expansion of the Phoenicians at the beginning of the 1st millennium bce is to be connected with the alliance of Hiram of Tyre with Solomon of Israel in the second half of the 10th century bce. Both these cities acted as fortresses commanding the routes through the mountains to the mineral and other wealth of Anatolia. Cyprus had Phoenician settlements by the 9th century bce. Citium biblical Kittim , known to the Greeks as Kition, in the southeast corner of the island, became the principal colony of the Phoenicians in Cyprus.

Elsewhere in the Mediterranean, several smaller settlements were planted as stepping-stones along the route to Spain and its mineral wealth in silver and copper: According to Thucydides , the Phoenicians controlled a large part of the island but withdrew to the northwest corner under pressure from the Greeks. Modern scholars, however, disbelieve this and contend that the Phoenicians arrived only after the Greeks were established.

Carthage in turn seems to have established or in some cases reestablished a number of settlements in Tunisia, Algeria , Morocco , the Balearic Islands , and southern Spain, eventually making this city the acknowledged leader of the western Phoenicians.

There is little factual evidence to confirm the presence of any settlement in Spain earlier than the 7th century bce , or perhaps the 8th century, and many of these settlements should be viewed as Punic Carthaginian rather than Phoenician, though it is likely that the colonizing expeditions of the Carthaginians were supported by many emigrants from the Phoenician homeland. It is very probable that the tremendous colonial activity of the Phoenicians and Carthaginians was stimulated in the 8th—6th centuries bce by the military blows that were wrecking the trade of the Phoenician homeland.

Also, competition with the synchronous Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean cannot be ignored as a contributing factor. In the 3rd century bce Carthage, defeated by the Romans in the First Punic War , embarked on a further imperialistic phase in Spain to recoup its losses.

Finally, in bce , after a third war with Rome, Carthage suffered total destruction Third Punic War. It was rebuilt as a Roman colony in 44 bce.

The ancient Phoenician language survived in use as a vernacular in some of the smaller cities of North Africa at least until the time of St. Augustine , bishop of Hippo 5th century ce. The mercantile role that tradition especially assigns to the Phoenicians was first developed on a considerable scale at the time of the Egyptian 18th dynasty. The position of Phoenicia, at a junction of both land and sea routes and under the protection of Egypt, favoured this development, and the discovery of the alphabet and its use and adaptation for commercial purposes assisted the rise of a mercantile society.

A fresco in an Egyptian tomb of the 18th dynasty depicts seven Phoenician merchant ships that had just put in at an Egyptian port to sell their goods, including the distinctive Canaanite wine jars in which wine, a drink foreign to the Egyptians, was imported. The Story of Wen-Amon recounts the tale of a Phoenician merchant, Werket-el of Tanis in the Nile delta, who was described as the owner of 50 ships that sailed between Tanis and Sidon. The Sidonians are also famous in the poems of Homer as craftsmen, traders, pirates, and slave dealers.

The biblical prophet Ezekiel , in a famous denunciation of the city of Tyre Ezekiel 27—28 , catalogs the vast extent of its commerce, covering most of the then-known world. The exports of Phoenicia as a whole included particularly cedar and pine woods from Lebanon, fine linen from Tyre, Byblos, and Berytos, cloth dyed with the famous Tyrian purple made from the snail Murex , embroideries from Sidon, metalwork and glass, glazed faience, wine, salt, and dried fish.

The Phoenicians received in return raw materials such as papyrus, ivory, ebony, silk, amber, ostrich eggs, spices, incense, horses, gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, jewels, and precious stones. From the lands of the Euphrates and Tigris, regular trade routes led to the Mediterranean. In Egypt the Phoenician merchants soon gained a foothold; they alone were able to maintain a profitable trade in the anarchic times of the 22nd and 23rd dynasties c. Herodotus also observed that, though there were never any regular colonies of Phoenicians in Egypt, the Tyrians had a quarter of their own in Memphis and the Arabian caravan trade in perfume, spices, and incense passed through Phoenician hands on its way to Greece and the West.

The Phoenicians were not mere passive peddlers in art or commerce. Their achievement in history was a positive contribution, even if it was only that of an intermediary. For example, the extent of the debt of Greece alone to Phoenicia may be fully measured by its adoption, probably in the 8th century bce , of the Phoenician alphabet with very little variation along with Semitic loanwords , by characteristically Phoenician decorative motifs on pottery and by architectural paradigms , and by the universal use in Greece of the Phoenician standards of weights and measures.

Essential for the establishment of commercial supremacy was the Phoenician skill in navigation and seafaring. The Phoenicians are credited with the discovery and use of Polaris the North Star. Fearless and patient navigators, they ventured into regions where no one else dared to go, and always, with an eye to their monopoly, they carefully guarded the secrets of their trade routes and discoveries and their knowledge of winds and currents.

Hanno , a Carthaginian, led another in the mid-5th century. The Carthaginians seem to have reached the island of Corvo in the Azores , and they may even have reached Britain , for many Carthaginian coins have been found there. Between the withdrawal of Egyptian rule in Syria and the western advance of Assyria , there was an interval during which the city-states of Phoenicia owned no suzerain.

The history of this time period is mainly a history of Tyre , which not only rose to a hegemony among the Phoenician states but also founded colonies beyond the seas.

Unfortunately, the native historical records of the Phoenicians have not survived, but it is clear from the Bible that the Phoenicians lived on friendly terms with the Israelites.

In the 10th century bce Hiram , king of Tyre, built the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem in return for rich gifts of oil , wine, and territory. In the 9th century, however, the independence of Phoenicia was increasingly threatened by the advance of Assyria. In bce Ashurnasirpal II reached the Mediterranean and exacted tribute from the Phoenician cities. His son, Shalmaneser III , took tribute from the Tyrians and Sidonians and established a supremacy over Phoenicia at any rate, in theory , which was acknowledged by occasional payments of tribute to him and his successors.

A fresh invasion by Shalmaneser V took place in when he was on his way to Samaria, and in Sennacherib , facing a rebellion of Philistia, Judah, and Phoenicia, drove out and deposed Luli , identified as king of both Sidon and Tyre.

In Sidon rebelled against the Assyrians, who marched down and annihilated the city, rebuilding it on the mainland. Sieges of Tyre took place in and , but the city resisted both, only submitting in the later years of Ashurbanipal. During the period of Neo-Babylonian power, which followed the fall of Nineveh in bce , the pharaohs made attempts to seize the Phoenician and Palestinian seaboard. Nebuchadrezzar II , king of Babylon, having sacked Jerusalem, marched against Phoenicia and besieged Tyre, but it held out successfully for 13 years, after which it capitulated , seemingly on favourable terms.

Phoenicia passed from the suzerainty of the Babylonians to that of their conquerors, the Persian Achaemenian dynasty , in bce.

Not surprisingly, the Phoenicians turned as loyal supporters to the Persians, who had overthrown their oppressors and reopened to them the trade of the East. Lebanon, Syria-Palestine, and Cyprus were organized as the fifth satrapy province of the Persian empire.

Phoenician coins have been used to supplement historical sources on the period. From the reign of Darius I [— bce ], the Persian monarchs had allowed their satraps and vassal states to coin silver and copper money. Arados, Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre therefore issued coinage of their own. In the 4th century Tyre and later Sidon revolted against the Persian king. The revolt was suppressed in bce. In bce Tyre resisted Alexander the Great in a siege of eight months.

Alexander finally captured the city by driving a mole into the sea from the mainland to the island. We strongly believe that you should have access to any information, website or application you wish when using your Chrome browser. Censorship is a way to keep people in check and restrict their freedom in an attempt to maintain existing power structures.

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