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So here you will find always working live feeds and streams for any sports you want to watch!. The law decentralizing the media further entrenched the power of notables, who now had no need to be accountable to anyone. These links carry out automated searches and may produce some irrelevant results. WAN Treaty on Copyright Andrea Arnaboldi vs Thiago Monteiro. Serial TV Russia Movies. All these tend to support journalists' rights, freedom of access to information, and editorial independence, in an effort to promote democracy.

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Programmes include African animal safaris, tours of 5 star hotels and rural villages, and visits to major cities and towns. Electronic documents must be legally registered as of a law of June , and illegal sites are subject to sanctions.

Much French legislation in this domain is already harmonized with European legislation. The French government in the s was an active participant in promoting international policies, especially in terms of uniform pricing, protection of intellectual property and authors' rights. The European Council in initiated the European Directive which created an internal market to regulate competition, protected intellectual property rights, the right to freedom of expression, and the right of general interest, and encouraged investments in creative and innovative projects.

France adopted the European Directive on July 2, ; it protects original database content and support. France in November signed the International Convention on cyber criminality, which punishes copyright infractions.

Cyber crimes benefit as of November of a decision of the Cour de Cassation providing for immediate litigation rather than the three-months delay granted to the printed press. Internet providers are not responsible for crimes committed by internet services except if they fail to prevent access to that service if the justice system notified them of the crime.

Journalists and editors practice self-censorship by tradition, and because of the deterrent value of state subsidies and laws limiting the freedom of the press. In both instances they use the many registers of political caricature deftly so as to escape the accusation of libel, while providing needed distance toward reality as well as reaction against "dominant conformism.

French journalists have long been self-policing in the area of professional ethics. The professional code of journalists defines their role and responsibilities in a democratic society.

Recent case studies show an uneven degree of tolerance for the press's behavior. The journalists protested that this was a house search. At issue was the fact that AFP had treated the picture as merchandise, not information.

Publications by religious sects were not deemed subversive to the public order, and the government ruled in that transportation societies could not refuse to carry those publications to the press distributors. The relationship between the press, power, and the judicial system in France is in a state of suspended animation.

Political power can be heavy at times, such as in the presidential appointments of AFP directors. Yet this practice continued in the s and s, signaling a political desire to control the main provider of information in France. After President Mitterrand's death, the public learned that the press had known about his secret illness, cancer, long before disclosing it to the public, in a procedure reminiscent of the press's behavior during the last three years of President Pompidou's life, twenty years earlier.

In , the death of Princess Diana opened a debate about professional ethics, showing that some paparazzi's appetite for sensationalism may have contributed to the car accident that claimed her life and that of her companion Dodi Fayed.

The eruption of several political scandals in the s the Bernard Tapie, Alain Carignon, and Pierre Botton scandals created a renewed demand for professional ethics. In May , journalists formed an association to strengthen the professional ethics and denounce in particular the practice of the false "Une" based on publicity rather than real news. The public called for truth in information and voted with their purse: There are numerous governmental boards regulating the media in addition to the professional paritaire employer-employee boards which are under governmental oversight.

There is no strong parliamentary oversight of the media. Governmental boards exist mostly to plan, give direction, and assist. The most important board is perhaps the Commission Paritaire des Publications et Agences de Presse whose statute was revised according to a decree of November 20, and whose function is to grant a registration number to publications and granting fiscal and postal tax exemptions.

Affiliated with the IFJ, the Union Syndicale des Journalistes CFDT has representatives in the main governmental and professional commissions dealing with journalism, journalistic training, ethical questions, granting of the press card, editorialists' rights, collective bargaining and arbitration commissions.

The French government has taken an active role in promoting the information society and changing the educational, administrative, and communication cultures simultaneously within its own institutions and without. A flurry of decrees has been passed in the last few years, especially since the European Directive of July 2, , that established the framework for the Information Society. The French government has actively defined and regulated the new technologies' uses, literary and artistic property copyright , legal protection of databases, and e-commerce.

While France provided active input on pricing, intellectual property and authors' rights, its legislation is inseparable from European Union legislation on those matters. Anticipating the European Directive in January an Interministerial Committee for the Information Society CISI was created to devise a governmental program to support and give direction to the development of the Information Society. The Prime Minister's office is most important in shaping the Information Society.

Several organizations dependent on his office coordinate this initiative which develops in consultation with European legislation. While the former sees the development of new technologies of information and communications, or NTIC, as an opportunity to develop French presence abroad and to promote the use of French language, the latter's CLEMI or Centre de Liaison Enseignement et Moyens d'Information educates the public about the media, mostly internet.

Once again, the media are seen as inseparable from education and democracy. While there is no Information Ministry in France, the relationship between political power and the media is complicated and symbiotic. In postwar France, the intervention of the state in the life of the media was qualified of "chronic illness.

French politicians in the past often used the press as a political trampoline. The practice continued under the Fifth Republic. The National Assembly in counted some twenty deputies who had been journalists, nine of whom belonged to the Hersant Group which was built with the tacit approval of the authorities.

This phenomenon was repeated in towns such as Saint-Etienne, Lyon, Vienne, and Dijon which had elected journalists in their midst. In , the Director of France 3, the national television station, was former prefect Xavier Gouyou-Beauchamps, who was chief of the presidential press service between and In Dijon and Marseille, former rightist politicians were heading the regional television stations.

Other signs of this symbiotic relationship were a strong national monopoly at the expense of the freedom of television and radio coverage and regional coverage. This stemmed from General de Gaulle's desire to curb the regional notables' power, however, his policy failed. The only exception was Radio France, which introduced both pluralism and true local news.

The law decentralizing the media further entrenched the power of notables, who now had no need to be accountable to anyone. While regional reporters have some autonomy, local reporters are often chosen by the local officials, especially the mayor's office.

Local journalists are very dependent on local power and reluctant to engage in polemics, and thus less critical of the mayoral office in particular. In direct subsidies totaled approximately million francs, a 2 percent decrease over subsidies. The many forms and levels of subsidies form a complicated structure almost incomprehensible to the uninitiated eye, but they can be separated into direct and indirect subsidies.

Among the main direct subsidies are subsidies for the national and regional dailies with low publicity revenues, transportation subsidies, subsidies for facsimile transmissions, subsidies for the expansion of the French press abroad, and subsidies for the multimedia.

Since the Liberation, the government has subsidized the daily press, whether it is national or regional, departmental or local. In order to qualify a newspaper must limit its publicity revenues to 30 percent of its turnover.

These provisions are updated regularly, two major updates taking place in for the national press, and in for the regional, departmental, and local press. The fund to promote the French press abroad was updated in February while on November 6, the fund for the transportation of the press was updated. Among the indirect subsidies are subsidies for social expenses, professional membership fees, subsidies for postal transportation, preferential VAT treatment, cancellation of the professional and social contribution taxes, and a host of other measures.

Those subsidies are voted yearly, with eligibility and other provisions being regularly revised. Thus reduced postal rates were last revised as per a decree of January 17, The Finance Law of not only redirected those subsidies but created a modernization fund for the daily political and general press. In , the amount of subsidies increased significantly, as seen in a Multimedia Development Fund offering of up to , Euros in to specific projects or 30 percent of expenses , with a total allocation fund of 2.

Other media sectors encouraged to go on line and use multimedia supports open to the public included the Institut National de l'Audiovisuel which stored television and radio programs; and radio and television programs, including RFO Radio France Outremer and the ensemble of the Radio-France stations broadcast online since In the late s, the French government created many subsidies for the new technologies.

By a decree of February 5, the government further amended the provisions of the Ordinance of November 2, regarding the modernization of the press.

Subsidies and loans were granted by an employer-employee Orientation Committee up to 40 percent of the expenses and 50 percent for collective projects, dealing with productivity increase, reduction of production costs, improvement and diversification of the reactionary format through the use of modern technologies for acquiring, storing, and diffusing information , and reaching new categories of readers.

A Control Commission was charged with overseeing the projects' execution. Press distributors receive a graduated fee for their services as per a decree of February 9, In the late s, given the increase in distribution costs, they were pressured to diminish their fees.

The government, however, in refused to change a provision limiting a decrease of the fees to one percent for dailies and two percent for all other periodicals.

In , the fee was increased from 9. Provisions were also made to allow them to limit the bulk sent to them if supplies exceeded sales, and to help them computerize their sales transactions in order to better manage their business. Provisions were also made to continue the low rates of health insurance coverage of press distributors and local correspondents who have enjoyed them since The AFP received in a million FF governmental loan to help diversify its activities, services, and products.

Stating that the clients are becoming more diversified, international and professional, and that their products will include photos, infography, and databases, the AFT foresaw a budget of 1.

AFP is in full expansion, foreseeing a growth rate of seven percent between and The government also took measures to help recycle old papers, of which the printed press makes a considerable amount, 2.

An estimated 40 percent of that amount could be recycled, according to a study conducted in Foreign correspondents from countries outside the European Union whose stay in France exceeds three months must obtain residency permits from the French government and complete accreditation procedures with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. If they cover presidential press conferences, they must join the presidential press association.

There is no screening of cables or censorship of foreign media. Import of periodicals must get approval from the Ministry of Commerce. All major international press organizations are represented in France who voted against restrictions on newsgathering in support of the UNESCO Declaration of Distribution of foreign propaganda is strictly forbidden. France is known for its support of human rights and freedoms. It extends this support to foreign journalists in any part of the world.

Thus in the s, the French press denounced the loss of freedom of the press in Islamic countries, in particular the Maghreb Tunisia, in , the expulsion of press correspondents, the closing of opposition newspapers, and noted the ouster in of the Tunisian Newspaper Directors' Association from WAN.

There are a great number of foreign news publications in France, starting with the press services of foreign countries, of institutions such as the United Nations and the European Community, World Bank, and IMF. There are 45 offices representing German newspapers, radio and television stations, including a Paris representative of financial and economic newspapers such as the Financial Times -German edition, or Tomorrow Business , and a correspondent of RTL-TV-Deutschland.

England has 17 foreign correspondents in France. France imports significant amounts of foreign newspapers. In , the amount of press imports almost equaled the amount of press exports, in million dollars, against The issue foreign media access may soon be a moot point. Most Internet sites already give access to selected foreign media, while some sites such as Courier International offer a world guide of the online press. There are 33 international press and media professional organizations in France.

Some represent a region Asia, Europe, Africa while others are thematic education television stations, environment , or regroup media genres independent and local radio and television stations, audio-visual and telecommunications media , or professional categories editors-in-chief, journalists. The International Herald Tribune is probably the most distinguished foreign newspaper in France. It is produced in Paris and printed in 24 press centers across the globe, mostly in Europe and Asia, by a total staff of , of which 56 are journalists.

Since its beginning in as the New York Herald Tribune, it has engineered a series of journalistic and technological "firsts," none as spectacular as its successful transition from a traditional newspaper to a cross-media brand since The secret to its success lies in its ability to deliver world news in a concise format 24 pages , its commitment to excellence, and its independence. Owned jointly by the Washington Post and the New York Times since , it was the first newspaper in the world to be transmitted electronically from Paris to Hong Kong in , thus becoming available simultaneously to readers across the globe.

It has also set up joint ventures with leading newspapers in Israel, Greece, Italy, South Korea, Japan, Lebanon, and Spain and publishes in English local inserts that contain domestic news.

Calling itself the world's daily newspaper, it is perceived as the most credible publication by its upscale, mobile, international readership. Small foreign newspapers are produced in France, such as Ouzhou Ribao , a Chinese language newspaper owned by the Taiwanese press group Lianhebao-United Daily News, which contains general information for Asia about Europe. Foreign ownership of domestic media or foreign partnerships in domestic media is a reality within the framework of the European Union.

An example of foreign ownership of domestic media is Les Echos , owned by the British group Pearson. Olivier Fleurot, who directed the Les Echos group from to , was named in general director of the Financial Times , which he planned to turn into the premier world financial and economic newspaper.

With the internationalization of the media in the Information Society, joint partnerships and transnational groups are bound to increase, thus blurring the distinction between foreign ownership and domestic media.

The European Community has already made European television a reality with its European Convention on Transfrontier Television, which France accepted in The Arte television station is enjoying a great success in its two sponsoring countries, France and Germany, and is fast gaining a European audience. Internet groups are the most transnational thus far.

The French-speaking press has known a considerable increase in the s, in great part around the Mediterranean rim. French-speaking media are diffused on all continents: TV5, an international television station, broadcasts on all continents; its online version features useful and local information.

The television organization TVFI was charged with promoting French television programs abroad and was charged by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to offer online program offers, a repertory of French production associations, and in general to promote French programs. All the initiatives taken by CISI have tended to develop online initiatives while putting information and communication technologies at the service of the promotion of the French language.

Again, education, culture, and media are inseparable in this perspective. The Agence France Presse remains one of the main French news agencies. Founded in by Charles-Louis Havas, it was the first world news agency. In , a publicity branch was created. In , journalists who had participated in the Resistance rebaptized the agency AFP and gave it a new statute.

In a bill was introduced in the Senate to modify this statute, but it did not pass. From the mids to the mids, important changes took place: New technologies were not forgotten. In , AFP started beaming news via satellites, in it created its computer graphics system, and by it was completely digitized. It opened its web page in , followed by the first internet newspaper in French in and a script of televised news to the Bloomberg company.

In the late s, more international initiatives followed with the opening of a Spanish language desk in Montevideo in and the launching of English, Spanish, and Portuguese internet newspapers in In , it launched an interactive newspaper text and photos on a TV frequency, expanding this service to a multimedia newspaper in Chinese with the CNA Agency of Taiwan.

In , its sports pictures were available to Japanese mobile phone users. It has currently offices in countries, staff members belonging to 81 nationalities, of whom are journalists and photographers, while live abroad. In addition AFP has free-lancers on five continents. Its main offices are organized in five regional zones: North America Washington, D. Its subsidiaries include financial, companies, and stock exchange news services, and German language news and sports services.

It sends 2 million words a day in six languages French, English, Spanish, German, Arabic, and Portuguese every day of the year, 24 hours a day, and 70, photos a year. Its clients include newspapers, radio and television stations, 1, administrations and companies, and national press agencies. It touches directly or indirectly 3 billion people and informs 10, media. Threatened by a deficit in , the AFP saw the resignation of its CEO Eric Giuily after the government refused to support its five-year plan of massive and rapid investment in modernizing the agency.

The statute of the agency, which mandates a balanced budget and forbids loans and capital increases, prohibits the AFP from borrowing money if it wants to grow. The statute has come under scrutiny, trying to balance financial growth with the protection of independence and objectivity. The AFP indeed lost its traditional market in the s when the written press declined; while gaining new clients, especially on the international market, it did not make enough profits to finance such modernization into the digital age.

The AFP proposed industrial partnerships in order to gain the capital and technology necessary to produce sound and animated pictures. Despite difficulties, the AFP has moved into the multimedia age beginning in , with a rapid intensification in It also diversified its services by adding financial news and sport news for its Asian market, and plans future diversification.

Smaller press agencies coexist with AFP. In general there has been a development of the French press in the Mediterranean, including in foreign countries such as Morocco and Lebanon. One of the reasons for this interest lies in that La Cote Bleue is devoted to stock market news. Several specialized agencies were created after The newest one seems to be the Agence Centrale de Presse-Communication, which was founded in Keystone— L'Illustration is one of the oldest one, founded in France, with her tradition of lively trade unionism, has several associations that represent the press and the journalists.

Some syndicates such as the FPPR regroup several smaller syndicates. The FNPS is an umbrella organization for seven smaller specialized syndicates. The FNPF insures the study of problems related to the profession, the coordination of programs of action devoted to the study of specific problems or the defense of specific interests.

It also represents collective interests of the profession in lawsuits and participates in the resolution of individual or collective work conflicts, including conciliation and arbitration.

Finally, the FNPF represents the profession to the government, and para-governmental and inter-professional organizations. The e-press has an association to promote the sale of e-press, Viapresse. The SNJ was created during World War I, in March, as an independent syndicate wanting to create for journalists a moral role equivalent to that of the Conseil de l'Ordre for lawyers.

Its Charter was revised until it was finalized in Between and , the SNJ fought for the recognition of the statute of journalists, which resulted in the Guernut-Brachard Law of March, , followed by the creation of the Commission de la carte, the first salary grids, the first labor collective contract in The strikes of saw the syndicate fragment into smaller, political factions, while in the SNJ remained independent.

In it regrouped ten autonomous organizations from different professional sectors within the "Groupe des dix. It claims dedication to the proper professional training of journalists. Many associations have joined their European counterpart. Another important category of association is those dedicated to the study and information about the media. The Argus de la Presse which numbers over 11, clients, and has been in existence for years, specializes in information databases and synthesis, analyzing trends, products, and competition in the written press, the multimedia, the web, and creates databases about journalists.

The measurement of multimedia audience has become a flourishing industry. For over 20 years it has archived French television programs, calling itself "the memory of the future. Among the professional organizations one must mention the advertisement societies that deal with all aspects of advertisement, from announcer's syndicates to museums to verifying publicity.

The cable and satellite operators have also formed associations. In all there are 13 of them, including the distributors of "satellite bouquets" regrouping several programs, and offering interactive programs.

Four of those are cable operators associations, operate mostly for specific localities and public service. With million people in the 15 European member countries of the EU, and the prospect of six new countries and 60 million more people, understanding European news is paramount.

The European Federation of Journalists, a branch of the IFJ created in , is currently working on several issues, of copyright, sources' disclosure, editorial democracy and independence, media convergence, and access to information.

All these tend to support journalists' rights, freedom of access to information, and editorial independence, in an effort to promote democracy.

The EFJ, also created in an expert group on collective bargaining to draft a model contract on working conditions. Europ Magazine is the electronic publication of the EFJ, and gives news about Europe, and provides links to all activities and publications of European journalists.

EFJ trains world journalists to European affairs and institutions. EFJ also calls for professional regulation, rather than European Community law, of the issue of cyberjournalists' handling of financial information. Thus it promoted a Charter on the security of journalists in battle zones or conflict areas. It tracks the fate of French journalists detained, harassed, or imprisoned abroad and publishes a yearly report on the liberty of the press worldwide. Held on May 3rd, it has been recognized in by the United Nations as an official day.

RSF also does not believes in restricting freedom of expression on the internet, a libertarian position that it uses to fight censorship worldwide. In French people spent only 30 minutes reading the newspaper, against 3 hours 20 minutes watching TV.

The French press lost readers during the s mostly to television reruns. Until , radio and television stations were under a state monopoly. In , the popular suffrage election of the president of the republic opened television to presidential candidates for debates. In ORTF was replaced by seven national societies: This restructuring caused clashes between syndicates and management in the fall of In July , state monopolies of radio and television ended, giving birth to eighteen private radio stations.

In the Loi Tasca encouraged the development of public television stations. Some French and foreign channels are accessible by cable and satellite. It broadcasts a news program every 30 minutes along with debates, interviews, or continuous coverage when needed. Digital TV started in and reached one million subscribers within two years. A new tendency is to regroup several networks into a "bouquet" of programs. Canal Satellite, owned by Canal Plus, offers , viewers a 9-network deal, starting in In addition, there are 18 theme radios, mostly with ethnic, religious or cultural specializations.

Nine television and radio stations also broadcast on the internet. Radio France in April-June, controlled It employed 4, personnel of whom were journalists and 1, pigistes. It featured 7 stations: In addition to these activities, Radio France was devoted to help orchestras and choirs such as the Orchestre National de France, l'Orchestre Philharmonique, and the Maitrise de Radio France.

This growth was achieved mostly between and By , there were more than 30 television channels. The public stations remain favorites for the 8 p. There are approximately 20 cable channels and seven Hertz-diffused channels. Three stations are private.

TF1 and M6 are financed by private stockholders and publicity; Canal Plus is a pay-per-view channel that has advertisement revenues. France 2 has more of a national, general profile. It informs, entertains, and educates, and has 25 percent of the market. France 3 has a national and regional vocation, broadcasting regional and local news several times a day.

France 3 has close to 20 percent of the market. Arte was created following the Franco-German Treaty of It broadcasts cultural programs, debates, and reporting between 7 pm and 3 am. It is the first educational channel devoted to knowledge, formation, and employment. It shares its channel with Arts and broadcasts between 6 a. TF1 was privatized in and enjoys 35 percent of the market.

Its reputation, history and expertise, combined with its long-standing monopoly, its popular tone, made it the first French television station.

It broadcasts games, sport, varieties, and popular films. Half of its public are less than 35 years of age. Created in , the pay-per-view Canal Plus is the oldest of the private chains. It is pay-per-view with an encryption. It banks on films and sport, and a famous series "Les guignols de l'info," a parody of sports, political, and artistic leaders by puppets. Canal Plus is controlled today by Vivendi which uses it for the audio-visual activities, Havas for its editing, multimedia and publicity activities, and Cegetel for the telecommunication industries.

In general, French television stations are very supportive of the movie industry by pre-buying and co-producing movies. TF1 and France 2 did the same. The Loi Traut-mann was passed in by the National Assembly. In the works for 2 years, this law aimed at strengthening the pluralism of cultural and social identities, public service, and the INA. It opposed privatization, increased subsidies, and curbed publicity on television, which had increased from 2 minutes a day in to12 minutes per hour in By creating a group of public television and radio stations with independent regulatory mechanisms, the government recognized the need to maximize their industrial potential.

The law contained guarantees of pluralism of creation as well and reinforced the role of CSA against a greater concentration of multinational communication groups.

Existing television stations were given two years to adopt a digital production system. Each private TV station got 5 channels. France, which had seemed frozen in the monopolistic digital technology known as Minitel, quickly overcame a technology gap at the end of the s.

In December , 30 percent of French households were connected to the internet, below the 38 percent European average, yet showing a percent monthly growth since March, , i. In April, , 32 percent of Frenchmen declared logging on regularly, i. Of those, 40 percent access it at work, and 14 percent enjoy a fast connection. The search engines accounted in March, for Approximately one third of internet users age 11 and older use the internet to download files.

Among the important issues are the relationships between e-version and print departments. As of the former were separate but not autonomous from the latter, although web newspapers editors are already thinking about gaining their autonomy. Radio and television had a difficult time finding the right medium and format, thus they were slower to adopt the Internet. The nature of e-media's support and content leads each medium to attempt to be all media, such as Web-TV, and each medium wants to say it all, leading to the repetition of content among the mediums.

Furthermore, this desire has also provoked radical changes in the appearance of online newspapers and TV screens which now begin to resemble each other with "boxes" and scrolled news briefs at the bottom. By updating information regularly, both television and e-newspapers are in danger of losing depth of coverage and analysis.

Newspapers that exist strictly online are growing. A number of sites such as AdmiNet offer electronic press clippings and feature sophisticated search engines. The oldest online newspaper is perhaps Fil Info which was created in as an independent information newspaper. Having forged partnerships with AFP, foreign internet access providers and publishers, it has developed local branches. It offers a membership package, feature articles from AFP with links to related topics, and a series of news arranged topically.

Actu-media offers news about the media and society, sports and the arts. Imaginet , created in , merged in with the pan-European access group COLT-Telecom which is devoted to business. L'Argus de la Presse is a paid service sending French and foreign press, radio, television, and web excerpts to clients, as well as serving as a database about journalists and information. Finally, a guide to the best sites of the online press, Presse On Line , features a search engine of newspapers and over 3, links to the French-language press worldwide.

It is organized topically, from general to local and regional newspapers, sciences, sport, ads, education, leisure, and more. Some of those sites publish in several languages, while others give a repertory of all French-language resources.

All have an international dimension, in particular Courrier International which features a link to Kiosque en Ligne , a world guide of online press. With the new interactive possibilities offered by Internet, studies about the role of publicity, the type of audience, and statistics of all kinds have become essential to the survival of the electronic news media. Sites devoted to those studies have increased exponentially. Another fast developing trend is the personalized site, made possible by the ability of online publishers to track the tastes and occupations of their audience.

Of course, all online newspapers are interactive and offer chat rooms, which gives them feedback about their product and the readers' tastes. Many invite readers to submit articles for publication. Many newspapers are hiring a mediator or ethics and professional watchdog who also arbitrates in case of a disagreement between readers and editors. Online competition comes not only from France but from French-speaking countries as well.

It quickly developed into an interactive, original site that borrowed little from the printed version. Now among the top five percent of the world internet sites and the recipient of several prizes, it is recognized as one of the best francophone e-media sites. The main radio and television stations now have online sites. The professional training of journalists is improving, but today still more than two thirds of all journalists have no professional degrees.

In , the proportion of journalists having completed formal professional schooling at a school of journalism remained at a low Another 25 percent of journalists declared having had one or more short-term training experience in either journalism or information-communication, which deals more with the technical training aspects, half of them in settings specialized in journalistic teaching.

Of the journalists having received a formal education, in one-third received training at university schools of journalism, while Women journalists have more years of formal training than men, averaging over 3 years of post-secondary studies consistently throughout the s vs.

An incentive for students to complete professional training is a recent provision in the national labor contract, which reduces the number of years of apprenticeship for journalism graduates to one year. Another result of this increased competition is an increase the quality of the news, together with a decrease in job security.

In , the Agence France Presse acting as a national journalism school for young journalists and the Centre de Formation des Journalistes remained the main training organizations until student demand for the democratization of education in the s led to the creation of several programs, especially in the IUTs or Instituts Universitaires de Technologie.

Most programs offer a year program depending on specialization, and admission to some is granted upon successful completion of an entrance examination, such as for the CFPJ. The IUTs offer a two-year program, which is reduced to one year if the student has other university diplomas, and programs of study can also be completed as continuing education.

Several schools are accredited by a commission paritaire composed of an equal number of representatives of employers and employees. Journalism professors are often trained journalists taking a leave from their professional obligations.

Schools of journalism are constantly redefining their curriculum, keeping up with the changing nature of the profession. The Institut Pratique de Journalisme, for example, which opened in , created a department of permanent continuous training in It was recognized by the collective labor convention of journalists in , joined the European Association of Journalistic Training, and became accredited in Its graduates are employed by the press, radio, television, press agencies, online services, and in businesses.

Most recently, with the adoption of the hour work week, and budgetary crunches, it became more difficult for journalists to take time off for seminars, and IPJ started to program the dates and content of its seminars after consultation with press managers, rather than to making its schedules flexible. In general, practical training and experience are seen as a necessary ingredient of formal training. CELSA, for example, offers continuous learning seminars along with its regular programs.

To enroll in a MA program, the prospective student must have a BA, 26 years of age minimum, and 3 years professional experience. To enroll in a doctoral program, the prospective candidate must have a MA, 26 years of age minimum, and three years professional experience. The programs at CELSA range from communication to media and multimedia technology, marketing, human resources management, and institutional communication.

France, its syndicates, and the European Union recognize that continuous learning is an important part of a journalist's training. The Centre de Formation et de Perfectionnement des Journalistes or CFPJ, labeling itself the premier center for training and perfecting journalists and press managers, holds summer workshops in addition to its regular programs, to which it admits approximately students a year.

Several professional associations labeled that organize summer university programs, festivals, and congresses and conferences. These sort of open forums promote discussion and exchange of ideas in a format favored by French tradition. It is important to note also that all continuous learning seminars stress professional issues and ethics as an integral part of journalistic training, and that they emphasize the theory or philosophy of the profession as well as its technical aspects. Online journalists receive a formation that is part technology, part journalism.

Not only French schools of journalism, but the European Community and the International Federation of Journalists have taken initiatives to address both aspects of the training. For the past ten years, seminars and workshops have discussed issues such as access to information, the defense of journalists' freedoms, libel, defamation, the right of respect for privacy, as well as the functioning of the media.

All those programs are meant to increase access and pluralism in the information society. Of the journalistic prizes, the most prestigious is the Prix Albert Londres. Created in by the prematurely deceased journalist's daughter, the prize rewards the best press reporter.

A second prize was created in for best audio-visual reporter. Reflecting the internationalization of the media are two relatively recent prizes. The Prix Franco-Allemand du Journalisme rewards the best production in three categories television, radio, written press dealing with a topic that favors rapprochement and understanding between the two countries.

Similarly, the Prix Robert Guil-lain awarded by the France-Japan Press Association, the Japanese Embassy in France, and other associations and businesses, rewards the best article or reporting by young journalists or journalism students about Japan. Created in and named after a long-time distinguished reporter to Japan, Robert Guillain, it carries a travel award to Japan as well as a monetary reward of 1, Euros.

Its first recipient was Les Echos editor-in-chief Charles de Laubier. The prize carries a monetary reward of 7, Euros and has been awarded every year to a foreign journalist. During the last twenty years, the French press was challenged in many ways, first through the generally depressed economic climate, then, in the s, by the information revolution.

A pioneer of digital communication in the s with Minitel, France saw the privileged position occupied by the printed press evaporate as it struggled to make room for the new technologies. In this fast changing situation, few established national newspapers retained a position of privilege, some surviving only at the cost of major restructuring. Journalists struggled with an increasingly competitive market and a redefinition of their competencies, roles, and status. Uniformity threatened news content.

Technology threatened to take over. Major ethical questions about the quality of the press and its role as guardian of democracy and pluralism emerged amidst political and financial scandals which prompted an ongoing and public philosophical debate about professional conduct and the defense of democracy, pluralism, and freedom of the press.

Also, a major challenge to the French regulatory and subsidy model arose with European legislation. Despite those challenges the profession of journalist remained in constant expansion. Bahu-Leyser, Danielle, Faure, Pascal, eds.

Collection des rapports officiels. Cazenave, Elizabeth, Ulmann-Mauriat, Caroline. The Parisian Radical Press, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Charon, Jean-Marie, Furet, Claude. Editions Odile Jacob, La Presse sur internet. La Presse online en Europe. Texts of resolutions, policies, and parliamentary discussions. Les noms de la presse et de la communication. Premier ministre, Service d'information du Gouvernement. The Press in France, Duke University Press, Rapport de la Cour de cassation Tableaux statistiques de la presse.

Statistics and General Information. World Press Trends World Association of Newspapers. The Nature of the Audience In , General Comments The French press has long had a tradition of defending its freedoms and establishing high standards for reporting the news, political news in particular. Using it to promote democracy and educate the readers, it regularly engages in debates about what constitutes proper journalistic practice.

Economic Framework Print Media versus Electronic Media In the s, France was the first country to put a newspaper online by using a revolutionary system called Minitel. The increase in internet use can be measured by the. Concentration of Ownership The late s saw the formation of large press groups controlling both technology and editorial content, with the major French investor being the Vivendi group.

Special Interests and Lobbies With lobbies not much a part of the French tradition, there are few press lobbies, and they are all recent. An Expanding Profession The statute of journalists is defined by the collective labor contract for journalists, which was passed as Loi Guernut-Brachard in Employment and Wage Scales The average monthly salary of a journalist was FF 10, in , with almost half of the journalists earning between FF 7, and 10, Copyright Laws and the Status of Journalists Copyright issues are complex issues that are the object of intense lobbying from journalists' associations.

Circulation Patterns The average price of a daily newspaper is higher than in Great Britain or Germany despite state subsidies: Freedom of the Press Freedom of the press is one of the basic freedoms in France.

Summary of Press Laws in Force Press laws in force deal with the countless aspects of the media industry. Registration and Licensing of Newspapers and Journalists Periodical publications with public circulation are subjected to strict laws. Cyber Communication and Copyright Online communication is protected by the September, 30 law about freedom of communication. Censorship Agency Concerned with Monitoring the Press Journalists and editors practice self-censorship by tradition, and because of the deterrent value of state subsidies and laws limiting the freedom of the press.

Case Studies Recent case studies show an uneven degree of tolerance for the press's behavior. State Leadership in Promoting the Information Society The French government has taken an active role in promoting the information society and changing the educational, administrative, and communication cultures simultaneously within its own institutions and without. State-Press Relations Relations of the Press to Political Power While there is no Information Ministry in France, the relationship between political power and the media is complicated and symbiotic.

State Subsidies In direct subsidies totaled approximately million francs, a 2 percent decrease over subsidies. Attitude toward Foreign Media Accreditation Procedures for Foreign Correspondents Foreign correspondents from countries outside the European Union whose stay in France exceeds three months must obtain residency permits from the French government and complete accreditation procedures with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Foreign Newspapers in France There are a great number of foreign news publications in France, starting with the press services of foreign countries, of institutions such as the United Nations and the European Community, World Bank, and IMF.

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